Veterinary Epidemiology @ Melbourne

Measures of association

This tool allows you to calculate point estimates and confidence intervals for measures of association strength, measures of effect in the exposed and measures of effect in the population using counts of exposure and outcome events entered into a 2 x 2 table. The animations help you to understand how each measure is calculated and how each is interpreted.

Enter your data into the table below to start. Click on the i icons to view an animation to explain how each measure is calculated.

Enter data

Outcome + Outcome - Total
Exposure +
Exposure -


Confidence interval
Study design